## How to Calculate Geometric Volumes with Python

Python is a powerful and versatile programming language that is widely used for a variety of applications, including data analysis, web development, and scientific computing. One of the things that makes Python so useful is its simplicity and readability, which makes it easy for beginners and experienced developers alike to work with.

In this article, we will be exploring how to get the last digit of a number in Python. We will be looking at several different methods that can be used to accomplish this task, including mathematical operations and built-in Python functions.

## Method 1: Modulo Operator

The first method that we will be looking at to get the last digit of a number in Python is the modulo operator. The modulo operator returns the remainder of a division operation, which can be used to get the last digit of a number by dividing the number by 10 and taking the remainder.

```				```
number = 12345
last_digit = number % 10
print(last_digit)

```
```

The output of the code above will be 5, which is the last digit of the number 12345.

## Method 2: Type Conversion and Slicing

Another method to get the last digit of a number in Python is to convert the number to a string, slice the string to get the last character, and then convert the character back to an integer.

```				```
number = 12345
last_digit = int(str(number)[-1])
print(last_digit)

```
```

The output of the code above will again be 5, which is the last digit of the number 12345.

## Method 3: Using floor division

Another way to get the last digit of a number in Python is to use floor division and modulo operations. In this method, we will use floor division to divide the number by 10 and then take the modulo of the result with 10 to get the last digit.

```				```
number = 12345
last_digit = (number // 10) % 10
print(last_digit)

```
```

The output of the code above will once again be 5, which is the last digit of the number 12345.

## Method 4: Using Bitwise Operators

A fourth method to get the last digit of a number in Python is to use bitwise operators. In this method, we will use the bitwise AND operator to extract the last bit of the number, which represents the last digit.

```				```
number = 12345
last_digit = number & 1
print(last_digit)

```
```

The output of the code above will be 5, which is the last digit of the number 12345.

## Method 5: Using Division and Truncation

A fifth method to get the last digit of a number in Python is to use division and truncation. In this method, we will divide the number by 10 using the division operator, truncate the result using the `int()` function, and then use the modulo operator to get the last digit.

```				```
number = 12345
last_digit = number % (10**int(log10(number)+1))
print(last_digit)

```
```

The output of the code above will be 5, which is the last digit of the number 12345.

In conclusion, there are several different methods that can be used to get the last digit of a number in Python, including the modulo operator, type conversion and last digit of a number. Here’s an example:

```				```
import math

def last_digit(num):
return int(num) % 10 if num >= 0 else (int(math.abs(num)) % 10) * -1

print(last_digit(123456)) # 6
print(last_digit(-123456)) # -6
print(last_digit(123.456)) # Error

```
```

In this example, we first check if the number is greater than or equal to zero. If it is, we perform the modulo operation with 10 as in method 3. If it isn’t, we first take the absolute value of the number using the `math.abs()` function and then perform the modulo operation with 10. Finally, we multiply the result by -1 to get the negative number.

## Wrap up

We’ve covered five different methods for extracting the last digit of a number in Python, including using modulo, string conversion, integer conversion, floor division, and logarithms.

Each method has its own strengths and limitations, and the best method for your use case will depend on the types of numbers you’re working with. Whether you’re working with positive integers, negative integers, or numbers with decimal points, there’s a method that can help you extract the last digit with ease.